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epsom salt for magnesium deficiency in plants

Epsom Salt for Magnesium Deficiency in Plants

In terms of photosynthesis, enzyme activation and the overall health of plants, magnesium is a key macronutrient. Such symptoms often include chlorosis (leaf yellowing), between leaf veins, leading to reduced growth and yield. To address magnesium deficiency in plants, Epsom salt that is chemically referred to as Magnesium Sulfate (MgSO₄) has been widely recognized as one of the most effective remedies available. This article examines the science behind how magnesium affects plant health, its deficiencies’ causes and signs and how these can be corrected by properly using Epsom salts so that optimum plant growth and productivity are achieved. In this piece readers will learn about diagnosing a lack of magnesium in plants, applying Epsom salts as targeted treatments in horticultural practices full round with diversified gardening styles.

Understanding Magnesium Deficiency in Plants

Magnesium deficiency in plants is commonly caused by low magnesium levels in soil or other nutrient imbalances that hinder the uptake of this element. Sandy or acid soils are particularly prone to losing magnesium. The most common symptoms are interveinal chlorosis, whereby leaves turn yellow while veins remain green, marginal leaf necrosis and finally decline in plant vigor and yield. Diagnosis of magnesium deficiency calls for accurate confirmation of low magnesium levels through soil and tissue testing differentiating it from other nutrient deficiencies showing similar symptoms. Gardeners can identify as well as deal with these shortages by understanding these underlying mechanisms.

Signs of Magnesium Deficiency

A number of signs depict a situation where there is a lack of enough magnesium ion; hence we need to differentiate between them. For example, early symptoms may include interveinal chlorosis characterized by the yellowing of leaves between veins while the veins themselves stay green unchanged. In fact, this symptom usually starts with older leaves because magnesium is a mobile nutrient that can be reallocated from old tissues to young ones. However, during its progression affected leaves may develop necrotic spots or marginal leaf necrosis which appear as dead tissues along the edge of leaves. More indicators might be dwarfism, curling or distortion of foliage as well as premature falling off foliage parts. Therefore, these visual indices are central to correct diagnosis and effective treatment supported by soil and tissue tests demonstrating low Mg2+ contents.

Causes of Magnesium Deficiency

Among several factors that could cause Mg2+ insufficiency in plants we can mention primary ones hereinafter: Soil composition: sandy acidic soils high in potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) prevent uptake by competitive ion adsorption Excess water supply: Excessive rainfall/irrigation leaches Mg2+ out of the soil thus complicating a deficiency especially if drainage is good Use poor Mg fertilizers or use fertilizers high in K & Ca which outcompete Mg in the soil and make it unavailable Soil pH: In highly acidic soils (pH below 5.5) or strongly alkaline ones (pH above 8.0), magnesium becomes less soluble and therefore, less available for plant absorption By managing these factors through proper soil management practices, targeted fertilization and keeping the right pH of the soils, gardeners can effectively mitigate magnesium deficiency.

Effects on Plant Health

Plant health is significantly compromised by a lack of magnesium ion because it interferes with vital physiological processes. First, it causes reduction in the production of chlorophyll and subsequently affects photosynthetic capacity resulting in lower energy synthesis for growth and development. It often leads to chlorosis where leaves turn yellow when they lack chlorophyll especially affecting older leaves at first. Furthermore, Mg is a necessary element for activation of many enzymes involved in plant energy transfer, carbohydrate metabolism as well as nucleic acid synthesis As such without enough Mg plants show stunted growth, poor root systems and low yields Unavailability of Mg could cause cells to be fragile thereby making them to die hence necrosis may take place facilitating disease attack Once there’s adequate Magnesium supply into plants it helps them grow well with strong stems that resist bending against winds due to stiff fiber-structure This enables plants to maintain vigorous growth, optimum photosynthetic activities as well as tolerance against environmental stresses either imposed by agro-ecosystems or natural phenomena like drought or flooding

The Role of Magnesium in Plant Growth

epsom salt for magnesium deficiency in plants

Magnesium is an essential mineral in the growth of plants and it is also the central atom found in chlorophyll molecules which are crucial for photosynthesis. It helps absorb sunlight, thus facilitating its conversion into chemical energy important in making carbohydrates. In addition, it also activates more than 300 enzymatic processes that control vital physiological functions such as protein synthesis, nutrient uptake as well as nucleic acid formation. Also, this micronutrient ensures that ribosomes are stable structurally thereby promoting cellular development and enlargement. As such, sufficient magnesium levels are necessary for proper plant growth ensuring maximum efficiency of photosynthesis and other metabolic pathways that maintain healthy tissue physiology.

The Functions of Essential Nutrients

Nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) are the primary macronutrients necessary for plant development. Photosynthesis in leaf tissues is directly dependent on nitrogen through being a key constituent of proteins, amino acids and chlorophylls resulting into leaf size and general health status of the plant. Literature reports state that ideal plant growth requires nitrogen amounts ranging from 2-5% of dry weight.

Phosphorous also plays critical roles in ATP/ADP mediated energy transfer processes, DNA/RNA biosynthesis and cell membrane synthesis activities. Mainly, it is taken up by plants as phosphate ions which may exist either as HPO4^2- or H2PO4− depending on soil pH responses. Research estimates indicate that typical phosphorous content ranges from 0.1 to 0.5%.

Potassium controls osmotic regulation, activates enzymes needed for bodily functions like photosynthetic stomatal movements impacting water use efficiency while controlling photosynthesis rates; acts as building blocks for cell wall structures among others; synthesizes starches and proteins during their formation within a growing point(s). Generally, plant tissues contain potassium between 1% -3% by weight according to literature research.

However, these figures should be verified using specific soil and tissue analyses to ensure proper fertilizer application for crop needs and growth stages.

Magnesium in Chlorophyll Synthesis

Magnesium (Mg) is located at the center of the chlorophyll molecule and it is important because sunlight cannot be captured without it during photosynthesis. Its availability directly influences production of chlorophyll substances which have a direct effect on the rate at which photosynthesis takes place. The technical information specifies that magnesium makes up about 6.7% of the molecular weight of chlorophyll (C55H72MgN4O5). Magnesium deficiency appears as yellowing between veins while veins themselves remain green called chlorosis which is a key symptom in many crops.

The optimum concentration for magnesium required by soils to facilitate vigorous growth of plants ranges from typically 25-50mg/kg though this figure may vary depending on soil type or crop species. CEC and soil pH greatly influence magnesium availability in soil, therefore, maintain a soil pH value between 6.0 and 6.5 for maximum magnesium uptake. In addition, there will be competitive cation interactions such as high-levels of potassium or calcium that can increase this disorder thus necessitating accurate nutrient management through balanced fertilization schedules.

Therefore, continuous monitoring involving both soil tests and analysis of plant tissues must take place so as to ensure adequate supplies are provided promptly where deficiencies occur thereby maintaining an ideal level of chlorophyll synthesis towards healthy leaves overall.

Efficiency of Photosynthesis

Being involved in chlorophyll production is not the only role that magnesium plays, and it also leads to significant changes in photosynthesis efficiency. Magnesium serves as a cofactor for various enzymes that participate in carbon fixation, carbohydrate metabolism, and nucleic acid synthesis. Crucial enzymes like ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) are activated by magnesium ions hence aiding conversion of carbon dioxide into organic molecules during Calvin cycle. The presence of Mg2+, which stabilizes the enzyme-substrate complex, modulates the affinity of RuBisCO for CO2.

The lack of sufficient magnesium results in decreased photosynthetic rate due to abnormal light absorption because chlorophyll synthesis is affected. Furthermore, disruption of the structural integrity of chloroplast membranes due to low levels of magnesium reduces photosynthetic efficiency even further. Thus plants that suffer from poor levels or quantities of magnesium show signs such as stunted growth rates, reduced biomass accumulation and low productivity.

Magnesium activates RuBisCO through binding to specific amino acids thereby leading to change in conformation of enzyme into an active state based on technical parameters. It has been said that optimal concentration for activation of RuBisCO by magnesium is reported between 5-10 mM. Additionally, ATP stabilization by Mg+and its involvement in controlling stomatal aperture could be key factors determining various plant species’ efficiency at photosynthesis.

Therefore, precise soil and plant management practices should ensure adequate amounts of magnesium to maximize photosynthetic capacity while promoting strong plant growth and productivity. For this reason, regular soil testing should be conducted in addition to targeted fertilization, and plant-specific requirements for magnesium should be considered to maximize photosynthetic effectiveness.

Why Epsom Salt is Effective

epsom salt for magnesium deficiency in plants

Magnesium sulphate, also called Epsom salt, is advantageous because of its high solubility in soil and plants and rapid uptake. It contains magnesium, which is the main component of Epsom salt. This element is essential for chlorophyll formation, thus enhancing maximum photosynthesis through increased light absorption and conversion. Moreover, it plays a central role in enzymatic reactions, such as making RuBisCO active, thus necessary for CO2 fixation during the Calvin cycle. Besides this, the Sulfate ion assists in synthesizing amino acids responsible for proper plant growth.

Epsom Salt Composition

Primarily, epsom salts have chemical formula MgSO₄·7H₂O meaning that magnesium sulfate accounts for a larger part of it. The compound consists of elements such as oxygen, sulfur and magnesium which enables it be soluble in water and taken up by plants easily. Other than these values chemicals contain an average 9.8% magnesium or 12.9% sulfur content by weight respectively so that optimal concentration of nutrients are provided to crops.

The role of magnesium in Epsom salt makes possible core functions such as chlorophyll synthesis and enzyme activation required in photosynthesis and plant metabolism respectively. Synthesis of amino acids and proteins depends on sulfur component that sustains vigorous growth (Tausz et al., 2005). The fact that Epsom salt addresses both deficiencies of magnesium and sulfur points out to its use not only in agriculture but also horticulture.

How Epson Salt supplements Magnesium

In plant physiology, magnaesium is critical for important processes like photosynthesis or synthesis of fundamental proteins (White & Broadley 2003). There are several ways Epsom salt supplements magnesium. First when MgSO₄·7H₂O dissolves into water; it breaks down into two types of ions including sulfate (SO₄²⁻)and magnesium (Mg²⁺) that are taken up by plant roots efficiently. Thus, the element’s insufficiencies manifest through lack of chlorophyll formation between veins and retarded growth rates among others due to rapid absorption of these ions.

Technical parameters certify Epsom salt to be at 9.8% Mg by weight, which is ideal for immediate uptake. Research suggests spraying on foliage or drenching in water with 1-2 tablespoons per gallon for a few days to a week can raise magnesium levels significantly. Also it has been known that Epsom salt contains sulfur approximately 12.9% (by weight), this increases the synthesis of amino acids like cysteine and methionine thereby promoting amino acid synthesis and protein formation.

Based on different authors, Epsom salts have been proven to effectively address both deficiencies in magnesium and sulphur thus leading to lush green foliage and overall improvement in plant vigor. Tomatoes and peppers require regular applications as they are high consumers of magnesium during their growing season hence maintaining optimal health and productivity.

Comparison Between Epsom Salt And Other Magnesium Sources

Some technical parameters stand out when comparing magnesium sulfate (Epsom salt) with other sources such as dolomite lime, magnesia/oxide, or chelated magnesium compounds. Water solubility of Epsom salt is ~710 g/L at 20°C making it rapidly absorbed thus best for acute deficiencies treatment. Dolomite lime (CaMg(CO₃)₂) releases slow amounts of magnesium which helps it make longer changes in soil but lacks instancy because its solubility reaches only ~0.01 g/L at 20°C).

The magnesium oxide (MgO) has a high content of magnesium (about 60.3% by weight) and it is slightly soluble (~0.0086 g/L at 20°C), whereby the concentration of this salt requires thoughtful application to avoid the possibility for toxicity due to its sustained release mechanism. In contrast, magnesium chelate forms, such as magnesium EDTA with moderate levels of usually 5-10% magnesium content differ in that they have stable complexes and are shielded from soil interactions facilitating efficient uptake.

In this regard, Epsom salt distinguishes itself from other sources of magnesium because it combines rapid solubility and dual-nutrient supply (magnesium and sulfur) at concentrations of 9.8% and 12.9% respectively which provide both immediate and multiple nutrients support for plants. This means that Epsom salts find wide application in managing acute deficiencies or improving plant health where time is limited for correction purposes.

Application Methods of Epsom Salt

epsom salt for magnesium deficiency in plants

Epsom salt can be applied in several ways, depending on the plants’ needs and the soil’s condition. Epsom salt can also be dissolved in water for foliar spraying at a rate of 1 tablespoon per gallon. This allows for quick absorption magnesium and sulfur through the leaves thus provinding instant supplementation. Soil application involves distribution of Epsom salt around plants and mixing it with soil. This is mostly done during early spring when plant enter a phase of new development, at approximately one tablespoon per foot-height of plant rate. It is also very effective to soak roots in a solution made by dissolving epsom salt in water before transplanting to minimize root shock and promote stronger establishment of the plant as well.

Soil Application Techniques

Adding Epsom salts to soil will greatly enhance plant health hence productivity accordingly. Thus, conducting baseline tests such as pH checks among others should be carried out before starting planting activities via appropriate directions given on the official website. For instance, North Carolina Cooperative Extension recommends 25-50 ppm magnesium levels in soil. Some common practices involving Epsom salts include applying about 1-2 tablespoons per plant while ensuring that it is evenly distributed throughout to facilitate topsoil absorption after light incorporation by means of its thoroughness towards making a good choice or something quite practical in this regard.It could be important to note that tomatoes and peppers benefit from this type of magnesium enrichment.

Some technical considerations have been highlighted concerning Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) which would ideally range between 10 and 15 meq/100g for effective retention of added nutrients. For instance, the Electrical Conductivity (EC) should be carefully monitored to maintain the recommended levels at around 1.2-1.6 mS/cm to avoid any possible salt stress on plants. Moreover, post-application soil tests can help regulate the rates and keep a balanced soil chemistry.

Foliar Spray Application

The foliar application of Epsom salt is a quick method of supplying magnesium and sulfur directly to plant leaves, leading to fast absorption and immediate gains. This method is particularly useful in managing acute nutrient deficiencies as well as promoting growth vigor during critical growth stages.. The concentration used for such a spray generally varies from one gallon of water with 1 or 2 tablespoons of Epsom salts. To achieve best results, apply it early in the morning or late evening when there will be minimal evaporation and maximum leaf uptake.

According to technical findings from authoritative sources, the ideal pH range for foliar spray solution is slightly acidic i.e., from 5.5 -6.5 which enhances nutrient uptake furthering these studies . Moreover, one needs to ensure that once sprayed uniform layer covers all leaves but not excess soaked hence efficient use without wasting much nutrients.

The frequency of these will depend on how often crops are grown continuously throughout an year period but must always checked out visually if there are unresponsive signs turnout while their general health status still needs regular observation under this therapy schedule based on any initial data obtained through direct experiments or simple consultations made through various types like: Yates growers guide; Crop nutrient management; Wilting down from above ground.The monitoring process extends up till the maturity stage in order to top-dress appropriately, thus avoiding either toxicity or deficiency symptoms due to inadequate feeding by making good choices using knowledge about toxicities caused by certain mistakes committed along the way in planning gardening activities each time they come close together during every season.

Proper Dosage And Frequency

The right dose of Epsom salt and how often it is applied is very important for plant well-being as well as nutrient uptake. For vegetable crops, 1-2 tablespoons of Epsom salt should be dissolved in a gallon of water and sprayed every two weeks. In soil application, it is recommended to add 1 cup of Epsom salt per 100 square feet of soil for crops and 1 tablespoon mixed into the soil per foot of plant height for trees and shrubs. It should be noted that these guidelines have to be adjusted depending on individual requirements by plants or if any deficiency is noticed. Dosage adjustment can only be done when there’s a continuous monitoring process from time to time along with regular soil testing so that dosage will always comply with the needs’ plants without subjecting them to poisonous effects.

Best Practices for Epsom Salt Use

epsom salt for magnesium deficiency in plants

When using Epsom salt for plant health, begin by doing a soil test to determine the magnesium levels in your garden. This shall ensure that you only apply Epsom salt when needed so as to avoid applying excessive amounts of magnesium which can harm plants. You can use granular Epsom salt for soil application or dissolve it in water for foliar sprays to increase nutrient uptake. Employ 1 -2 tablespoons per gallon of water in case of foliar applications and 1 cup per 100 square feet while using soil. Importantly, keep watering consistent and do not apply Epsom salts during drought periods to prevent building up salty soils that may desiccate roots through lack of water and imbalances in uptake ability. Lastly, always observe plant responses and make appropriate changes for best results.

Identifying the Right Time for Application

The best time to use Epsom salts on plants is early morning or late afternoon when the temperature is cooler thus reducing chances of leaf burn from foliar sprays. For soil applications, it is better to mix Epsom salt into the soil at the onset of a growing season or during planting. A regularly applied basis such as every four to six weeks could help maintain enough supplies of required magnesium and sulfur elements. Observing the weather also matters; don’t apply before heavy rain because nutrients will leech out, nor will their concentration rise after long dry spells due to high evaporation rates.

Integrating Epsom Salt with Other Fertilizers

One must understand the plant’s nutrient composition and the requirements when using other fertilizers alongside Epsom salts. This substance largely provides magnesium (Mg) and sulfur (S), which are secondary nutrients essential for plants’ survival, growth, and development. The chlorophyll molecule has its central atom made up of Mg, so it plays a key role in photosynthesis, while S is needed for protein synthesis and enzyme operation.

To ensure balanced nutrient supplementation, combine Epsom salt with a balanced fertilizer containing primary nutrients like nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K). For example, when using a standard NPK fertilizer (e.g., 10-10-10), one can improve its performance by adding Epsom salt at a rate of 1 cup per 100 square feet for soil application or 1 to 2 tablespoons per gallon of water for foliar application. In this way, potential Mg deficits will be addressed without overwhelming the soil with essential nutrients.

Monitoring and Adjusting Application

The effective use of Epsom salt in your fertilization regimen requires regular monitoring of soil and plant tissue. Have soil tests done at least once every year so that you can know what exists in terms of nutrient levels as well as detect any deficiencies. By complementing soil sampling, plant tissue analysis immediately reflects the plants’ nutrient uptake. These tests are crucial in establishing the exact magnesium and sulfur needs which shall guide future applications involving Epsom salts as to how often they should be given and in what quantities.

Adjust application rates based on test results. In cases where the soil magnesium level falls below 50 ppm or plant tissue analysis indicates magnesium levels below 0.2%, Epsom salts may need to be increased in a neutralizer solution. If Mg values are within or higher than acceptable ranges, reduce application amounts lest you over-supplement leading to mineral imbalances. Similarly, sulfur levels in soil should be maintained around 10 – 50 ppm whilst plant tissue ought to contain between 0.15% – .50% sulfur; otherwise consider adjusting the applications of Epsom salts accordingly.

You should also observe visual signs of nutrient deficiencies such as magnesium deficiency which is indicated by yellowing between leaf veins (interveinal chlorosis) and sulfur deficiency which results in stunted growth and pale green leaves. By doing so, it will guide you to make adjustments without having to rely heavily on the more formal tests.

Addressing Common Concerns and Misconceptions

epsom salt for magnesium deficiency in plants

Epsom salt overdose is a common concern. Nutrient imbalances can be prevented by following the application rates recommended by soil and plant tissue analyses. Misunderstandings include the assumption that Epsom salt is a panacea for all plant problems; in fact, it works only against magnesium or sulphur deficiency. Furthermore, some people believe that Epsom salts can substitute an extensive fertilization plan. Nevertheless, while it may be useful in treating specific deficiencies, total nutrients from all essential elements must be balanced to achieve proper plant health.

Overuse and Its Consequences

Using too much Epsom salt may result in several negative effects on plants and soil. One potential outcome is the buildup of salts in the soil, which reduces its permeability, causing increased pH levels. This also affects water availability to plant roots for absorption purposes and the uptake of other nutrients needed by these plants themselves (water flow). Over-reliance on this product can delay growing crops from germinating, thus tremendously reducing their general production scale.

Furthermore, too much magnesium due to over application might negatively affect the uptake of other important minerals such as calcium or potassium among others. Studies carried out by agronomists indicate that for optimal nutrient balance soil magnesium levels should not exceed 10-20% saturation of cation exchange capacity (CEC). Soil Mg at levels above this point would impair Ca + K uptake via competitive inhibition leading to a low yielding population with poor growth patterns.

In addition, excessive sulfur though rare may lead to acidic soils. To maintain fertility levels continuously monitor your soil’s pH level since when it shifts many microbial systems get affected further altering nutrient availability within the area being monitored (pH shift takes place). Most plants prefer soils with pH range between 6.0-6.5.

Compatibility with Different Plant Types

There may be significant variations among different plant types regarding compatibility of Epsom salt use since they have different requirements for magnesium and sulphur. For instance, plants such as tomatoes, peppers, and roses require higher amounts of magnesium which is important for chlorophyll production and increased growth. These plants’ recommended foliar application rate is 1 tablespoon per gallon of water every other week throughout the growing season.

However, in certain species including beans or leafy greens that are less tolerant to high Mg levels, caution must be taken when using Epsom salt. Since these crops are generally susceptible to salinity problems in soils from which they take up nutrients overuse of Epsom salts would cause an imbalance in their nutrient supply. It is better to carry out a soil test before applying the product so that Mg does not exceed 10-20% CEC; otherwise nutrients will not be absorbed correctly leading to poor crop performance.

Again, if one uses Epsom salt around ornamental shrubs like azaleas and rhododendrons, which prefer more acidic conditions, it ought to be done cautiously without causing any pH change. These plants are supported by microbial life in the soil themselves; hence, raised alkalinity disrupts this relationship.

In summary, even though some plants can benefit from Epsom salts, it is important to apply them in a way that considers the soil nutrient needs and tolerance of each type of plant to grow them optimally and keep them healthy.

Environmental Considerations

Therefore, using Epsom salt in gardening requires understanding what this implies regarding environmental consequences. Overuse may lead to high magnesium levels in the earth which will then seep into water systems thereby disturbing aquatic ecosystems. This is especially disquieting since excess magnesium can contaminate water killing fish and other forms of aquatic life. Additionally, over application might disturb the composition of soil thus diminishing its ability to maintain diverse microbial ecology that contributes towards healthy plants. Therefore, there is need for performing soil testing and following recommended rates so as to mitigate these risks where Epsom salts ought only be applied when needed and within limits that do not degrade the environment or spoil soil health.

 

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Q: How do I use Epsom salt for magnesium deficiency in plants?

A: To treat magnesium deficiency, mix 1 tablespoon of Epsom salt with 1 gallon of water. Apply this solution to your garden plants, ensuring the soil is well-saturated. This mixture can be used every two to four weeks.

Q: Can I use Epsom salt in the garden for all types of plants?

A: Yes, Epsom salt in the garden can be beneficial for many types of plants including vegetables, flowers, and lawns. However, some plants don’t like Epsom salt, so it is always best to research the specific needs of your garden plants before applying it.

Q: How much Epsom salt should I use for tomato plants?

A: For tomato plants, use 1 tablespoon of Epsom salt mixed in a gallon of water. Apply this solution to the base of the plants every two weeks to help them absorb magnesium and sulfur.

Q: Does Epsom salt help with blossom end rot on tomato plants?

A: Blossom end rot is typically caused by a calcium deficiency, not a magnesium deficiency. While Epsom salt can help tomato plants by providing magnesium, it will not correct calcium deficiencies. Ensuring your plants have access to sufficient calcium is crucial for preventing blossom end rot.

Q: Is there a risk of using too much Epsom salt on plants?

A: Yes, using too much Epsom salt can damage plants. Over-application can lead to an excess of magnesium, which can interfere with the uptake of other important nutrients. Always follow recommended dosages and observe how your plants respond.

Q: How should I apply Epsom salt to potted plants?

A: For potted plants, mix 1 to 2 tablespoons of Epsom salt with a gallon of water and use this solution to water the plants once a month. This helps to ensure they get the magnesium and sulfur they need without over-application.

Q: Can using Epsom salts help pepper plants?

A: Yes, pepper plants can benefit from Epsom salt. The magnesium in Epsom salt helps promote healthy new growth and improves overall plant vigor. Apply a solution of 1 tablespoon of Epsom salt per gallon of water to the base of your pepper plants every two weeks.

Q: What are some other ways to use Epsom salts in gardening?

A: Besides treating magnesium deficiency, Epsom salts can be used as a foliar spray, soil amendment, and to enhance seed germination. For a foliar spray, dissolve 2 tablespoons of Epsom salt in a gallon of water and spray directly onto leaves. This method helps plants quickly absorb magnesium and sulfur.

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