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Understanding Urea Fertilizer: Pricing Trends And Chemical Composition

Urea fertilizer (informal name carbamide) is a white solid nitrogen fertilizer, it is also the most widely used nitrogen fertilizer in the world. Many foods that are grown for our meals or kept as livestock feed can only grow well with this fertilizer because their growth is largely dependant on nitrogen. This makes urea fertilizer different from the e-cigarette manufacturer mentioned earlier who sells to consumers, since urea fertilizers in fact support global food production.

Urea is essential to the synthesis of amino acids that form the ‘building blocks’ of plant protein; it is also a critical element in plant photosynthesis, a process required for plant growth. CO(NH2)2, the urea fertiliser formula, contains about 46 per cent nitrogen, by mass, much more than many other nitrogenous fertilizers on the market.

For example, knowing what chemicals urea is made of aids farmers in applying it in optimal amounts. Urea is easy to handle, easy to store, nonflammable, and solid, making it an ideal fertilizer for both small and large agricultural operations.

Chemical Properties of Urea Fertilizer

Chemically categorised as carbamide, urea fertilizer has a formula of CO(NH2)2. This symbolises a plant nutrient that consists of three elements: carbon (C), oxygen (O) and nitrogen (N), which once inside the soil breaks down to supply the plant with nitrogen. Due to the high amount of nitrogen present – approximately 46% by weight – it is considered one of the most efficient fertilizers in agriculture.

The production of agricultural urea is based on the chemical reaction of ammonia and carbon dioxide under high pressure and temperature to produce urea and water. This high-pressure process was invented by German chemists Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch and has been called the Bosch-Meiser urea process since 1926. The high-pressure process made it possible to produce urea on a large scale, which has been necessary to meet the growing needs for crops.

These two properties – urea’s solubility in water, and its volatility – make it much easier to apply in agriculture. From a bird’s eye view, when you apply urea to the soil, urea hydrolyses, catalysed by the enzyme urease, to form ammonia and carbon dioxide. This in turn will make the nitrogen available in a usable form for the plants.

Urea as fertilizer, however, is also dependent upon factors like soil temperature and moisture which affect the rate of urea hydrolysis and subsequent plant-available nitrogen. In cold or dry soils, urea hydrolysis can be severely inhibited leading to delayed or reduced nitrogen availability to the plant.

Understanding its chemical characteristics and environmental dynamics is essential to maximising its effectiveness in the field so that the right amount of nitrogen nutrients get to the roots of crops at the right time to grow to the maximum size and yield.

urea fertilizer
urea fertilizer

Global Market Analysis of Urea Fertilizer

The price of urea fertilizer in the international market can be heavily impacted by the agricultural demand, the production capacity and the geopolitical environment.

Urea is the most widely consumed and traded nitrogen fertilizer in the world. It has become a key crop input, needed to feed a growing population. Asia – in particular India and China – are the largest consumer regions of urea fertilizer due to their large agriultural land and crop yield goals.

Due to natural gas being the main feedstock for ammonia production (urea’s precursor), urea is produced only in regions rich with natural gas. Thus, the main urea production is concentrated in China, Russia, India, and the Gulf countries – regions with relatively cheap natural gas and hence with lowest man­ufacturing costs for urea, which by definition translate into lower world urea fertilizer prices.

The price of urea fertilizer is volatile, affected by a range of factors. Production costs and, thus market prices, depend significantly on availability, and prices, of raw materials, especially natural gas. Trade policies and tariffs can close or open markets, thereby impacting global supply and demand. For instance, export restrictions in one country can result in prices spiking in others, particularly if they are net importers of that fertilizer to meet agricultural needs.

Consumption patterns and production technology also vary regionally. Higher levels of production technology and more efficient production can reduce production costs and, in turn, affect the price. In regions with older technology, production costs are higher and local prices could be higher than the world market price.

Understanding these trends and global dynamics is vital for everyone involved in making decisions in the agricultural sector, from producers to distributors, because it affects the prices they will reap or pay for commodities.

Factors Affecting Urea Fertilizer Pricing

There are many factors that impact on the price of a bag of urea fertilizer, from the price of the raw materials to the bigger picture of economic and geopolitical trends. Let’s take a closer look at the different sides so that farmers and other stakeholders in agriculture have the correct information to make decisions on how they will buy and use fertilizer.

The price of natural gas is perhaps the single most important variable influencing urea price. Since natural gas is the primary feedstock in the production of ammonia, plants widely use it to produce urea from coal, oil or gas. Price movements in natural gas can directly affect urea prices. For instance, the Middle East is known for its low cost and plentiful natural gas.

The manufacturing process also affects the cost structure of urea production: improving technology might lead to greater efficiency in the production process, which means lower costs and lower prices. Old facilities that do not allow the use of the recent improvements might entail higher manufacturing costs and that can help prices to remain elevated.

The second important factor is geopolitical. Trade policy, sanctions and political instability can all affect supply chains, limit exports or lead to tariffs, which increases the costs. For example, if countries such as Ras Al Khaimah restrict exports, supply in the global market will be lower and the price will go up.

Wider economic factors – such as shifts in inflation, currency movements or in the agricultural policy of major consuming countries – can also impact urea prices. Because urea is a commodity, its price fluctuates constantly. For instance, if a major agricultural country tries to subsidise farmers to purchase more fertilizers, this could drive up demand – and prices – throughout the world market.

Third, market forces related to supply and demand imbalances also come into play. Rising agricultural demand, either due to a growing global population and a growing desire for food, or due to a boom in biofuel production, could lift prices, assuming production doesn’t rise accordingly. Conversely, rising urea production due, say, to overproduction in China as it reached low-cost production, or a decline in demand due to a shift to organic agriculture, could pull prices down.

Understanding these drivers allows one to forecast urea fertilizer prices and enable planning for fertilizer production, investment or agricultural use.

Comparing Urea with Other Nitrogenous Fertilizers

Although urea fertilizer is an important weapon in the arsenal of agricultural inputs, its benefits and drawbacks for different agronomic conditions in the field can only be placed in proper perspective if we put them in the context of comparison with other nitrogenous fertilizers. This is indeed the purpose of this article. The aim here is to enable farmers and agricultural professionals to make informed decisions concerning the application of fertilisers in their various agricultural settings.

Ammonium nitrate is the main urea alternative, containing some 34 per cent nitrogen (as opposed to urea’s 46 per cent), and is thus slightly less powerful, but it is considerably less volatile and more stable than urea, crucial features in hot regions where urea can volatilise and lose its nitrogen to the atmosphere. Ammonium nitrate is also more sensitive to moisture, and ammonium nitrate explosives have even been used as improvised bombs in warfare, so this practice is prohibited in many parts of the world.

The other widely used nitrogenous fertilizer is ammonium sulfate (NH4)SO4. It has a much lower share of nitrogen (about 21 per cent) than urea but it contains sulfur (S), one of the essential macro-nutrients in plants that are necessary for protein synthesis. Sulfur may be lacking in some soils, and ammonium sulfate can be useful in those cases.

Calcium ammonium nitrate or CAN is also an option: not only is it safer to handle than ammonium nitrate during storage and application, it also contributes calcium to the soil. CAN has around 27 per cent nitrogen, which is less concentrated than urea, but this lower concentration results in slower emissions to the air and helps reduce soil acidity, thus improving the soil structure and availability of a wide range of nutrients.

The benefits of using urea over these alternatives include:

  • Higher nitrogen content: urea has more nitrogen per unit of urea applied and this may lower handling and application costs.
  • Lower cost per unit of nitrogen: Overall, urea is cheaper per pound of nitrogen than other sources.
  • There are ways to control its volatility: Proper placement, such as deep-banding or use of urase inhibitors, can reduce its volatility to extremely low losses.

The limitations of urea compared to these alternatives include:

  • Volatility: Unless it’s applied correctly, urea can result in the loss of a great deal of nitrogen to the atmosphere.
  • Higher risk of over-application: Because it has high nitrogen content, it has higher chance of over-application and nitrogen leaching, which is bad for aquatic ecosystems.

It is well-suited to situational uses, where a quick uptake of nitrogen and fast delivery is important, such as with high-growth crops at critical points in their lifecycle. It’s less suitable in situations where slow uptake of nitrogen and low risk of leaching are more important (than rapid application), or where runoff is a greater risk, which could favour CAN or a slow-release formulation.

Understanding their inherent properties and suitable uses will help manage crop nutrition and environmental impact and inform agricultural sectors towards more sustainable uses.

Future Trends in Urea Fertilizer Usage and Pricing

The future use and price of urea fertilizer will likely be determined by a collection of trends and innovations that are emerging in response to demands for greater efficiency, sustainability and responsiveness to changing regulatory and economic environments.

Revolutionising production technology is one of the major trends ones should convey. For example, enhanced efficiency fertilizers (EEFs) are emerging technologies that promise to increase the efficiency of urea-based fertilizer through reducing its nitrogen losses to volatilisation and leaching. For example, with incorporation of urease inhibitors, the speed at which urea is converted to ammonia can be slowed down, saving the nitrogen for the plant’s uptake, reducing aquatic pollution, and cutting carbon emissions. Since urea is the cheapest form of nitrogen, this kind of technological upgrading is expected to not only improve its environmental footprint but also reduce the cost per effective unit of nitrogen applied to the field.

Courtesy Cornell UniversityAKPs And so, what is in store? Urea fertilizer prices will run a bumpy course, driven by changing prices of natural gas (still the major precursor for fertiliser production), geopolitical tension, and changing agricultural policies throughout the world. At the same time, as the world economy moves towards more sustainable practices, demand for more efficient and environmentally benign fertilizers will increase, potentially changing market prices to a more stable long-term trend as supply increases and production practices improve.

In addition to this, another important development is the uptake of precision agriculture. This approach involves the exploitation of insights derived from data on field-level management in crop farming. Precision agriculture can have the advantage that, depending on the exact needs of each plot, fertiliser application becomes more targeted, hence resulting in less fertiliser being wasted.

Environmental issues and regulation will shape the future development of urea use. The nitrogen emissions produced by fertilizers are a key environmental issue. Governments are beginning to introduce regulations on nitrogen that will become more stringent as time goes on. The agricultural sector will have to become more environmentally friendly, and this process of regulation is likely to create more demand for advanced urea formulations that reduce their environmental impact.

Lastly, potential shifts in patterns of diets and fuel use on a global scale will likely influence how urea demand is modulated around different regions. In regions where biofuels or plant-based diets are growing in popularity, demand for agricultural products (and therefore for fertilizers such as urea) could rise.

These trends point out the dynamics in the urea fertilizer market and the key to industry in the years to come is contingent on the ways industry adapts to the fast-changing needs of agriculture, both in the way it fosters sustainability and affordability.

urea fertilizer
urea fertilizer

Conclusion: The Impact and Evolution of Urea Fertilizer

To conclude, the chemical story of urea fertilizer, from the fluctuation of its prices to the evolution of its chemical formula, also embodies the impact of molecules on the reality of farming, the food security of the world and the future of our environment.

In most cases, urea fertilizer prices have been quite volatile, reflecting changes in the costs of raw materials (mainly natural gas), as well as geopolitical reasons and world macro-economic conditions. The modern world economy needs to make long-term strategic and policy decisions if it is to be sufficiently robust and resilient to ensure that urea and other fertilizers continue to be available to farmers on a sustainable and equitable basis.

The urea fertilizer formula, CO(NH2)2, is an elegant ‘less is more’ approach to the provision of crop nitrogen. Improvements such as the development of urea with inhibitors lead to a more efficient and environmentally benign urea. Nitrogen losses to the environment are reduced, and nitrogen use efficiency is increased.

Going ahead, the urea industry would witness demand shifting due to advances in production technology and regulatory changes towards sustainable agricultural practices. To be precise, the future of urea fertilizer lies in shifting landscape of agriculture – as the world treads towards precision agriculture and sustainable way of farming, urea fertiliser would adjust itself to these new paradigms and would prove to be an indispensable element of their system.

In sum, as long as there are perennial studies and innovations in terms of urea production technology and its applications, the dual goals of producing more food while reducing environmental hazards can be achieved. Urea fertilizer will remain an important source of agricultural efficiency and sustainability.


Loyal Slow-Release Sulfur-Coated Urea 30 days and 60 days This specialty urea formulation boasts a total nitrogen content of 37.1%, encapsulated in a sulfur coating to regulate nutrient release. which optimizes plant growth and minimizes nutrient loss.

DTNPF offers a detailed overview of urea prices along with other major fertilizers. The site tracks price changes and provides insights on market dynamics such as supply disruptions which could influence future pricing trends​.

YCharts features the US Urea Spot Price monthly insights, which is particularly useful for tracking price fluctuations over time. This source outlines historical price data and notes significant monthly and annual changes, offering a broader perspective on price trends.

IndexMundi maintains a record of monthly urea prices and offers graphical representations of price trends over various periods, which can be helpful for visualizing long-term patterns and forecasting future movements.

IHS Markit provides a detailed market outlook for urea fertilizer, discussing key factors affecting the market including production volumes, major exporting and importing countries, and the economic factors that influence prices. This source also discusses future trends and potential market shifts.

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